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Sunday, 26 June 2011

Transistor as a switch

Transistor as a switch

BJT used as an electronic switch, in grounded-emitter configuration.
Transistors are commonly used as electronic switches, both for high-power applications such as switched-mode power supplies and for low-power applications such as logic gates.
In a grounded-emitter transistor circuit, such as the light-switch circuit shown, as the base voltage rises the base and collector current rise exponentially, and the collector voltage drops because of the collector load resistor. The relevant equations:
VRC = ICE × RC, the voltage across the load (the lamp with resistance RC)
VRC + VCE = VCC, the supply voltage shown as 6V
If VCE could fall to 0 (perfect closed switch) then Ic could go no higher than VCC / RC, even with higher base voltage and current. The transistor is then said to be saturated. Hence, values of input voltage can be chosen such that the output is either completely off,[13] or completely on. The transistor is acting as a switch, and this type of operation is common in digital circuits where only "on" and "off" values are relevant.

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